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first_imgFull chemical analyses, including some trace elements and both oxygen and strontium isotope abundance data are presented for samples collected from a traverse across the outcrop of the early Tertiary Loch Uisg Granophyre. Chemically, the body is rhyodacite with very uniform major and trace element composition. In contrast, depleted δ18O values vary widely from +1.5‰ in the south to −3.7‰ in the north (a distance of about 21/2 km), a range comparable to that for the intrusive rocks of Mull as a whole. This indicates more extensive groundwater interaction (i.e. higher water/rock ratios and/or higher temperatures of isotope exchange) towards the focus of the central intrusive complex. There is some degree of correlation between δ18O and iron oxidation ratios but no other evidence that the primary igneous geochemistry of these rocks has been significantly modified by hydrothermal alteration after emplacement of the pluton. Initial87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.71350 ± 9 to 0.71624 ± 6 and correlate with both Rb content and Rb/Sr ratio, the latter correlation yielding a pseudo-isochron of 260 ± 54 Ma at the time of emplacement. These results confirm a major contribution from an old crustal source region, ruling out formation of the granophyre solely from a basic parent magma. However, Rb-Sr data are presented for the Moine schists exposed in Mull and Morvern which also appear to rule out their involvement in the petrogenesis of the granophyre, either as a source region for melting, or as a bulk contaminant for a mantle-derived magma. The only viable hypotheses are assimilation at depth of? Lewisian into a basaltic fractionation sequence or partial melting of a Proterozoic basement such as that involved in the production of Caledonian granites in the Scottish Highlands.last_img read more

first_imgSatellite infra-red imagery and meteorological data suggest the presence of winter open water (polynya) in the coastal pack ice to the north and west of the Brunt Ice Shelf. Satellite imagery, although only available for a limited number of occasions, provides evidence for the polynya during the austral winter of 1991. Indirect meteorological observations from the British Antarctic Survey’s Halley station (75° 36′S, 26° 42′W) provide very strong supporting evidence of open water to the west of the ice shelf in previous years.last_img

Tidal flexure at ice shelf margins

May 9, 2021 | tqhsdewk | No Comments

first_imgHinge zones accommodate the differential tidal movement between floating ice shelves, which move with the sea tide, and grounded ice sheets, which do not. Observations on Rutford Ice Stream and Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, using the kinematic method of Global Positioning System, have yielded the first continuous tidal displacement profiles from an ice sheet hinge zone. The form of these tidal displacement profiles indicates that the flexure can be fit to an elastic beam model using a parameter space optimization technique. The model matches the observed tidal deflection profile to within 5 cm which is similar to the observational uncertainty. The same model and parameter fitting technique is then successfully applied to various other published and unpublished tidal displacement data from Doake Ice Rumples, Bach Ice Shelf, and Ekström Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and Jakobshavns Glacier, Greenland. I conclude that the elastic beam model with a single value of the elastic modulus (0.88±0.35 GPa) adequately describes almost all the data and so can usefully be applied elsewhere. Earlier studies of tidal dissipation in ice shelf hinge zones, based on a viscous or transient creep rheology, showed that perhaps 30% of global tidal energy dissipation could be occurring in ice shelf hinge zones. This study suggests, however, that an elastic rheology may be equally appropriate, in which case this estimation of the tidal energy dissipation is excessively high.last_img read more

first_imgSeismic reflection surveys were carried out over the Larsen Ice Shelf to examine the extent of the observed sedimentary sequences of the Larsen Basin as suggested by aeromagnetic and gravity data. The surveys were carried out with a small team of six, working from Skidoo motor toboggans and Nansen sledges. Charges of up to 8 kg were fired in hot-water drilled holes up to 9 m deep and 6 sec records made by a 48 channel TI DFS V system with a 4 ms sample interval. By towing a 2.4 km cable behind a Skidoo it was possible to obtain 2.4 km of 24 fold data per day. The reflection data were supplemented by shallow refraction surveys using a 12 channel Nimbus seismograph and by a 12 km expanding spread experiment. The refraction data gave velocities of 1305 ± 20 m s−1 for surface snow and 3154 m s−1 for the top 100 m of shelf ice. The 24 km of reflection data showed high seismic velocities with weak shallow reflectors, characteristics which are quite different from the known basin fill on James Ross Island. It is concluded that the surveys were done outside the basin and that the depth to basement estimates made from the aeromagnetic data do not provide a reliable guide to the extent of the basin.last_img read more

first_imgThe fluorite mineralization from the La Nueva Mine, has a Sm-Nd age of 130 ± 19 Ma, and thus must be related to the Lower Cretaceous late-Gondwanic extensional and magmatic event that affected the Sierras Pampeanas Basement of Argentina. Hydrothermal fluids involved in the formation of fluorite were probably derived by mixing of two fluids, an ascending high 87Sr/86Sr one, probably equilibrated with basement metamorphics, as suggested by the very negative ENd(130) values, and a second, “descending”, with a low 87Sr/86Sr value.last_img

first_imgWe calculate the probability density functions P of burst energy e, duration T, and interburst interval τ for a known turbulent system in nature. Bursts in the Earth-Sun component of the Poynting flux at 1 AU in the solar wind were measured using the MFI and SWE experiments on the NASA WIND spacecraft. We find P(e) and P(T) to be power laws, consistent with self-organized criticality (SOC). We find also a power-law form for P(τ) that distinguishes this turbulent cascade from the exponential P(τ) of ideal SOC, but not from some other SOC-like sandpile models. We discuss the implications for the relation between SOC and turbulence.last_img

first_imgThe longevity and extent of the oceanic southern margin of Gondwana have made it the subject of intense study for more than 70 years. It was one of the cradles of terrane theory and remains a proving ground for theories of supercontinent amalgamation and break-up. Investigation of processes on this margin, such as accretionary orogenesis and terrane analysis, is vital to our understanding of the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic evolution of the continental crust. In this special issue of Gondwana Research, entitled “The West Gondwana Margin: Proterozoic to Mesozoic”, we have assembled 9 research papers addressing various aspects of the evolution of the West Gondwana margin, first presented at the international meeting ‘Gondwana 12 (Geological and Biological Heritage of Gondwana)’, held in Mendoza, Argentina, in November 2005. Many concern southern South America, which has a fairly continuous Proterozoic to Mesozoic geological record.last_img read more

first_imgChanges in ocean circulation have been proposed as a trigger mechanism for the large coupled climate and carbon cycle perturbations at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ca. 55 Ma). An abrupt warming of oceanic intermediate waters could have initiated the thermal destabilization of sediment-hosted methane gas hydrates and potentially triggered sediment slumps and slides. In an ensemble of fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) simulations of the late Paleocene and early Eocene, we identify such a circulation-driven enhanced intermediate-water warming. Critically, we find an approximate twofold amplification of Atlantic intermediate-water warming when CO2 levels are doubled from 2x to 4x preindustrial CO2 compared to when they are doubled from 1x to 2x. This warming is largely focused on the equatorial and South Atlantic and is driven by a significant reduction in deep-water formation from the Southern Ocean. This scenario is consistent with altered PETM circulation patterns inferred from benthic carbon isotope data and the intensity of deep-sea carbonate dissolution in the South Atlantic. The linkage between intermediate-water warming and gas hydrate destabilization could provide an important feedback in the establishment of peak PETM warmth.last_img read more

first_imgThere is an urgent need to identify key marine areas for conservation, particularly in the high seas. A range of techniques have been applied to tracking data from higher predators, particularly seabirds and pinnipeds, to determine the areas of greatest use. This study compared three commonly used methods—kernel, first-passage time and state-space modelling—and a new approach, minimum displacement rate, for the analysis of data from the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans of Bird Island, South Georgia, tracked during the chick-rearing period. Applied to a single track, these four models identified similar marine areas as important. The greatest similarity in areas identified occurred when model assumptions were shared (such as slow speed indicating spatial preference) even when methods modelled these assumptions differently (e.g. Bayesian inference versus cumulative density surface). A gridded overlap approach applied to all tracks revealed core areas not apparent from results of any single analysis. The gridded approach also revealed spatial overlap between methods based on different assumptions (e.g. minimum displacement rate and kernel analysis) and between individuals. Although areas identified as important by kernel and first-passage time analysis of a single track were biased towards resting locations during darkness, this does not negate the requirement for their protection. Using the gridded overlap approach, two distinct core regions were identified for the wandering albatross; one close to the breeding colony and another 800 km to the North–West in the high seas. This convenient and pragmatic approach could be applied to large data sets and across species for the identification of a network of candidate marine protected areas in coastal and pelagic waters.last_img read more

first_imgThe time seabirds have to forage is restricted while breeding, as time at sea must be balanced against the need to take turns with the partner protecting the nest site or offspring, and timing constraints change once the breeding season is over. Combined geolocator-immersion devices were deployed on eleven Imperial Shags (four males and seven females) in Argentina (43°04′S; 64°2′W) in November 2006 and recovered in November 2007. During the breeding season, females foraged throughout the morning, males exclusively in the afternoon, and variability between individuals was low. Outside the breeding season, both sexes foraged throughout the day, and variability between individuals was high. Timing differences may be explained by higher constraints on foraging or greater demands of parental duties experienced by the smaller sex, females in this case. Sexual differences in reproductive role, feeding habits or proficiency can also lead to segregation in timing of foraging, particularly while breeding.last_img read more